Ancient Traditions of the Messiah

The Annointed One

Descendents of Aaron


"The word ‘Messiah’ comes from the Hebrew verb ‘to anoint’, which itself is derived from the Egyptian word messeh, ‘the holy crocodile’. It was with the fat of the CITE>messeh that the Pharaoh’s sister-brides anointed their husbands on marriage. The Egyptian custom sprang from kingly practice in old Mesopotamia."
- Sir Laurence Gardner, "The Hidden History of Jesus and the Holy Grail"
(from a lecture given at the Ranch, Yelm, Washington, 30 April 1997)

"Remarkably and characteristically, the term Mashiah - of which ‘Messiah’ is the Anglicized form - had preceded the Messianic concept by many centuries. Originally, in Biblical usage, it simply meant ‘anointed’, and referred to Aaron and his sons, who were anointed with oil and thereby consecrated to the service of God."
- Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"And you shall put them upon Aaron your brother, and upon his sons with him, and shall anoint them and ordain them and consecrate them, that they may serve me as priests."
- Exodus 28:41

"The legitimacy of the priesthood...was supposed to descend lineally from Aaron through the Tribe of Levi. Thus, throughout the Old Testament, the priesthood is the unique preserve of the Levites. The Levite high priests who attend David and Solomon are referred to as ‘Zadok’- though it is not clear whether this is a personal name or an hereditary title."
- Baigent, Leigh & Lincoln, The Messianic Legacy

Zadok or Sadduc means "Righteous One" and is symbolized by TZADDIK - one of the two pillars which, according to Knight and Lomas, stood at the doorway to Qumran ). Two gigantic bronze pillars flanked the entrance to the Temple of Solomon.

"The doorway was created by the pillars of ‘tsedeq’ [’righteousness’ - always doing good to others] and mishpat’ [’judgment’- divinely appointed order] with the holy arch of ‘shalom’ [’peace’ - prosperity, success, general well-being]."
"When these two spiritual pillars are in place with the Teacher of Righteousness (tsedeq) on the left hand of God and the earthly Davidic King (mishpat) on his right hand, the archway of Yahweh’s rule will be in place with the keystone of ‘shalom’ locking everything together at its center.
"It was clear from our readings that ‘tsedeq’ was for Canaanites a term associated with the sun god. The Canaanite sun god was seen as the great judge who watched over the world, righted wrongs and shone light unto the dark doings of hidden crimes."
- Christopher Knight & Robert Lomas, The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus

Melchizedek
The priest who preceeded the Levite high priests at the Temple was not an Israelite:

"But he who first built it was a potent man among the Canaanites, and is in our own tongue called [Melchisedek], the Righteous King, for such he really was; on which account he was [there] the first priest of God, and first built a temple [there], and called the city Jerusalem, which was formerly called Salem."
- Flavius Josephus, War of the Jews, Bk VI, Ch X, Sn 1

"Then Melchizedek king of Salem [Jerusalem] brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, and he blessed Abram, saying, "Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator [Or ‘Possessor’] of heaven and earth."
- Genesis 14:18-19

"This non-Israelite priest-king appears in two places in the Hebrew Bible: Genesis 14:18-20 and Psalm 110:4. My own reading of the texts is that Genesis is drawing on traditional material from the Judean royal cult (or perhaps even from pre-Israelite traditions) to tie the more recently introduced figure Abram to Jerusalem (Salem) and its temple cult. Psalm 110 seems to indicate that there was a priesthood of Melchizedek tied to the Davidic king in the temple cult. I ....think that he was a tutelary deity of the Davidic house along the lines of ancestral deification in West Semitic royal cults."
- James Davila, Melchizedek as a Divine Mediator

"The LORD says to my Lord: ‘Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.’ The LORD will extend your mighty scepter from Zion; you will rule in the midst of your enemies. Your troops will be willing on your day of battle. Arrayed in holy majesty, from the womb of the dawn you will receive the dew of your youth [or your young men will come to you like the dew].
"The LORD has sworn and will not change his mind: ‘ You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.’ The Lord is at your right hand; he will crush kings on the day of his wrath. He will judge the nations, heaping up the dead and crushing the rulers of the whole earth. He will drink from a brook beside the way [or The One who grants succession will set him in authority]; therefore he will lift up his head."
- Psalm 110 of David

For the author of scroll 11Q13, "Melchizedek is an enormously exalted divine being, to whom are applied names that are generally reserved for God alone, the Hebrew names el and elohim. In the author’s citation of Isaiah 61:2, which speaks of ‘the year of the Lord’s favor,’ ‘Melchizedek’ is substituted even for the most holy name of Israel’s God, Yahweh. Yet more remarkably, Melchizedek is said to atone for the sins of the righteous and to execute judgment upon the wicked - actions usually associated with God himself. By the power of Melchizedek, dominion on earth shall pass from Satan...to the righteous Sons of Light."
- Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Jr., and Edward Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation (1996) p. 455

"[He shall pro]claim this decree in the fir[s] [wee]k of the jubilee period that foll[ows nine j]ubilee periods. Then the ‘D[ay of Atone]ment’ shall follow af[ter] the [te]nth [ju]bilee period, when he shall atone for all the Sons of [Light] and the peopl]e who are pre]destined to Mel[chi]zedek. [...] upo[n the]m [...] For this is the time decreed for ‘the year of Melchiz[edik]’s favor’ (Isa. 61:2, modified), [and] by his might he w[i]ll judge God’s holy ones and so establish a righteous ki[n]gdom, as it is written about him in the Songs of David, ‘A godlike being has taken his place in the council of God; in the midst of the divine beings he holds judgment’ (Ps. 82:1. Scripture also s[ays] about him, ‘Over [it] take your seat in the highest heaven; A divine being will judge the peoples’ (Ps. 7:7-8)."
- 11Q13 2:7-11

"The biblical Jubilee year was the fiftieth year, the year following the succession of seven sabbatical years. Whereas a sabbatical year was one in which the land must lie fallow and rest (analogous to the Sabbath at the end of the week), in the jubilee year all land that had been alienated form its original owners was supposed to return to them. All Hebrew slaves were to be set free. The jubilee year began on the Day of Atonement and was signaled by the blowing of trumpets throughout the land and the proclamation of universal liberty."
- Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Jr., and Edward Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation (1996) p. 455

Royal Messiahs


"The High Priest, in particular, was termed ‘the Anointed [Mashiah] of God’. With the establishment of the monarchy, the same term was applied to the king: he was ‘the Anointed of the Lord’ because he was installed in the high office by receiving the sacrament of anointment."
- Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; against them he will thunder in heaven. The LORD will judge the ends of the earth; he will give strength to his king, and exalt the power of his anointed."
- 1 Samuel 2:10

Solomon is anointed by Zadok, thereby becoming ‘the Anointed One’, the ‘Messiah’ - ‘ha-mashi’ah’ in Hebrew."
- Baigent, Leigh & Lincoln, The Messianic Legacy

"Your throne, O God, endures for ever and ever.
Your royal scepter is a scepter of equity;
You love righteousness and hate wickedness.
Therefore God, your God has anointed you
[in the Greek of the Septuagint , enchrisen se, has made you Christ]
with the oil of gladness above your fellows."
- Psalms 45:6-7

Annointed Prophets


"A third type of the divinely elected, the prophet, could also undergo the ceremony of anointing: Elizah, we read, was commanded by God to anoint Jehu as king over Israel, and Elisha as prophet in his own place."
- Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"And Jehu the son of Nimshi you shall anoint to be king over Israel; and Eli’sha the son of Shaphat of A’bel-meho’lah you shall anoint to be prophet in your place."
- 1 Kings 19:16

"In a few passages ‘anointed one’ is used of prophets (most notably in Isa. 61:1) and of priests (Lev. 4:3, 5, 16), but without further designation the term normally refers to the king of Israel."
- Graham N. Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus, The Oxford Bible Series (1989), paperback, p. 221

The Idealized King


"...In early monarchic days the person of ‘the Anointed of the Lord’ came to be considered sacrosanct: to harm him or even to curse him, was a capital offense."
- Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"But David said, ‘What have I to do with you, you sons of Zeru’iah, that you should this day be as an adversary to me? Shall any one be put to death in Israel this day? For do I not know that I am this day king over Israel?’"
- 2 Samuel 19:22

"A further development of this concept can be seen in the belief that God provided special protection to His anointed king. The Psalms contain several references to the idea of divine intervention for ‘the Anointed of the Lord’, the idealized Davidic king:"
- Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"Now I know that the Lord saveth His Anointed [Mashiah],
He will answer him from His holy heaven
With the mighty acts of His saving right hand."
- Psalms 20:7

"While David was king of Israel (tenth century B.C.E.), the belief developed that his House would rule forever, not only over Israel but also over all the nations:"
- Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"The God who giveth me vengeance,
And bringeth down peoples under me....
Therefore I praise Thee, O Lord, among the nations.
And will sing unto Thy name,
Who increaseth the victories of His king
And dealeth graciously with His Anointed,
With David and his seed for evermore."
- 2 Samuel 22:48-52, Psalms 18:42-52

In the seventh century B.C.E., Judah and its capital were besieged by the Assyrians. Micah prophesized deliverance by someone from Bethlehem, the home village of the house of David, in terms that are resonant with Messianic expectations centuries later:

"Now you are walled about with a wall; siege is laid against us; with a rod they strike upon the cheek the ruler of Israel. But you, O Bethlehem Eph’rathah, who are little to be among the clans [or rulers] of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose origin [Hebrew ‘goings out’ ] is from of old, from ancient days [olam or from days of eternity]. Therefore he shall give them up until the time when she who is in travail has brought forth; then the rest of his brethren shall return to the people of Israel. And he shall stand and feed his flock in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God. And they shall dwell secure, for now he shall be great to the ends of the earth."
- Micah 5:1-5

"The word ‘olam’ is derived from the primitive root alam, meaning to veil from sight, to conceal. An analysis of the passages where olam appears shows clearly that the word does not express ‘eternity’ or ‘everlasting’ as it has been frequently translated in the King James Version. Rather, it simply expresses a duration, a time during which a person, thing, or state of a thing exists - literally an age of time which has a definite beginning and conclusion. the duration of an age in scripture is sometimes defined and sometimes undefined."
- Dallas E. James, "Putting the Sword to Churchianity"

Zoroastrian Precedents

(1) The "Spirit of God" and the "Evil One"

"The Babylonian Captivity had exposed the Jews to the Zoroastrian pantheon, with its good gods headed by Ahura Mazda (‘God of Light’) and it bad god headed by Ahura Manah or Ahriman (‘God of Darkness’). This led to the belief that the prolonged overlordship that outlasted the captivity was the fault of the bad gods, rebel messengers who has refused to obey Yahweh ‘s orders.
"Alternative versions of the seraphs’ original disobedience were postulated, the most popular being that they were the sons of the gods who had sired the giants by illegally recreating with mortal women. Such rebels had to have a leader, and since the concept of a divine antagonist, a Jewish Ahriman, had been assimilated before there was any speculation as to the antagonist’s identity, he was simply styled the Enemy (ha-stan). The first reference to the Enemy as a male in Jewish mythology was made by Zechariah in 520 BCE."
- William Harwood, Mythologies Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus

"And the Lord said to Satan, ‘The Lord rebuke you, O Satan ! The Lord who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?’"
- Zechariah 3:2

"After the Exile of the Jewish people and later through contacts with Jews of the Diaspora in many parts of the Mediterranean world, Zoroastrian concepts influenced Jewish thought. Certain ideas about last things, salvation, and Satan (the Evil One) stem from Zoroastrianism."
- Ninian Smart, The Religious Experience of Mankind

"The old Persian faith was an abstract and subtle religion, offering many new ways of looking at divinity and the idea of the holy. Its influence upon the minds of Jewish scribes and rulers, men like Nehemiah and Ezra, was probably greater than surviving evidence can show. There are, however, numerous hints of this influence in the Old Testament. The ‘Spirit of God’, for example, that moves on the face of the waters in the opening of Genesis is a most remarkable idea...Yet in surviving Persian writings the idea of a ‘spirit of god’ is a common one."
- John Romer, Testament

"The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me; he has sent me to bring good news to the oppressed..."
- Isaiah 61:1 (Deutero-Isaiah 5th C. B.C.E.)

"...The Persian Mazda worshippers looked for the birth of a Savior from a virgin mother."
- Frederick Thomas Elworthy, The Evil Eye

"We worship the guardian spirit of the holy maid Esetât-Jedhri, who is called the all-conquering, for she will bring him forth who will destroy the malice of the demons and of men."
- Sacred book of Zoroaster

"The central importance of the king of Judah was demonstrated in their New Year rituals, which followed Egyptian and Babylonian models. Some of the most important ritual acts were intended to ensure that the king continued to rule, an example of this being a re-enactment by the king of the original battle of the triumph of the forces of light over the forces of darkness and chaos. The king and his priests chanted the ‘Enuma elish’ - the story that tells how the chaos-dragon Tiamat was overcome to allow the creation to take place."
- Christopher Knight & Robert Lomas, The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus

The influence of Zoroastrian belief is particularly evidence in the Apocryphal books of 1 Enoch and Jubilees as well as a number of Dead Sea Scrolls .

"[The God of Knowledge] has created man to govern the world, and has appointed for him two spirits in which to walk until the time of His visitation: the spirits of truth and falsehood. Those born of truth spring from a fountain of light, but those born of falsehood spring from a source of darkness. All the children of righteousness are ruled by the Prince of Light and walk in the ways of light, but all the children of falsehood are ruled by the Angel of Darkness and walk in the ways of darkness. The Angel of Darkness leads all the children of righteousness astray and until his end, all their sins, iniquities, wickednesses ‘ and all their unlawful deeds are caused by his dominion in accordance with the mysteries of God ... But the God of Israel and His Angel of Truth will succour all the sons of light. For it is He who created the spirits of Light and Darkness and founded every action upon them and established every deed [upon] their ways. And he loves the one everlastingly and delights in its works for ever; but the counsel of the other he loathes and for ever hates its ways."
- Manual of Discipline 3:18-21

(2) Death and Resurrection

"...Some of the optimistic Persian notions of the afterlife seem to have entered into the later Books of the Prophets in the Bible. A rare view of the traditional Israelite afterlife (the afterlife is not often mentioned in older biblical writings) is briefly glimpsed in the tale of Saul’s meeting with the dead Prophet Samuel, who is ‘called up’ by the Witch of Endor (1 Samuel 28:7-21) from a kind of Hades; it is a shadowy survival."
- John Romer, Testament

"The king said to her, ‘Have no fear; what do you see?’ And the woman said to Saul, ‘I see a god coming up out of the earth.’ He said to her, ‘What is his appearance?’ And she said, ‘An old man is coming up; and he is wrapped in a robe.’ And Saul knew that it was Samuel, and he bowed with his face to the ground, and did obeisance."
- 1 Samuel 28:13-14

"But in the Book of Isaiah, which was certainly compiled after the Babylonian exile, a full-blown theory of death and resurrection is implicit throughout, a forerunner of one of the major themes of the New Testament."
- John Romer, Testament

"Thy dead shall live,
My corpses shall arise,
Awake and sing
Ye dwellers of the dust,
For a dew of light is thy dew
And the earth shall bring forth [Hebrew tapil ‘bring down’, ‘cast out’] the shades [possibly an eschatological earthquake]."
- Isaiah 26:19

"Greek geenna represents Aramaic gehinnam, which in turn represents Hebrew ge-hinnom, an abbreviation of the full title, ‘valley of the son of Hinnom’. The name probably is that of the original Jebusite owner of the property. In the Old Testament this is a geographical term which divides ancient Jerusalem (Zion) from the hills to the south and west. It is the modern Wadi er Rababi, which joins the Wadi en Nar (the Kidron) at the southern extremity of the hill of Zion.
"The valley was a point on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Joshua 15:8, 18:16). This usage is reflected in Nehemiah 11:30. The valley had an unholy reputation in later Old Testament books because it was the site of Tophet, a cultic shrine where human sacrifice was offered (2 Kings 23:10; 2 Chronicles 28:3, 33:6; Jeremiah 7:31, 19:2ff, 32:35)."
- John L. McKenzie in Endtime: The Doomsday Catalogue

"There Jews who turned to foreign religions performed horrible ceremonies, burning their children in honor of pagan gods (see Jeremiah 7:30, 31)."
- Alan Millard, Discoveries From the Time of Jesus, p 38

"It is called simply ‘the valley’ (Jeremiah 2:23). Because of this cult Jeremiah cursed the place and predicted that it would be a place of death and corruption (7:32, 19:6ff). The valley is referred to, not by name in Isaiah 66:14, as a place where the dead bodies of the rebels against Yahweh shall lie. Their worm shall not die nor shall their fire be quenched..."
- John L. McKenzie in Endtime: The Doomsday Catalogue

"The authors of Enoch ca. 150 BCE) [adapted] the physical Gehenna to the mythology of Zarathustra to produce an Essene/Pharisee purgatory, identical with the Christian Hell except for the lack of permanence. Prior to Jesus, the Essenes had pictured Gehenna as a monstrous torture chamber that sinners needed to endure as the only method of cleansing them of their sins and making them fit for the afterlife of the saints. It was not...the suffering through which a sinner was purified, but rather exposure to the sacred power of Fire. Zarathustra did not quite deify Fire, but he saw it as an aspect of the divinity of Ahura Mazda."
- William Harwood, Mythologies Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus

"Their spirits are going to be thrown into a blazing furnace. They are going to be wretched in their immense agony, and into darkness and chains and burning flames...you will have no peace....We have been tortured and destroyed and not hoped to see life from day to day."
- 1 Enoch 98:3, 103:7-10

"In the first century it was the fires of burning refuse that lit the valley. By that time its name had been put into Aramaic as Gehenna, and had become a common Jewish word for hell."
- Alan Millard, Discoveries From the Time of Jesus, p 38

The author of Revelation over 200 years later would write of how Hades itself would be consumed by fire:

"Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. The lake of fire is the second death."
- Revelation 20:14

Messianic Prophesies from the Age of Exile

(1) Cyrus the Great

"...After the period of exile, other major themes of both Judaism and Christianity also begin to appear in the Bible, not the least import of which is the idea of the Messiah - the ‘Anointed One’. Cyrus the Great is the first biblical person to be given this title."
- John Romer, Testament

(All books from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings were constructed from various texts, such as the court narrative of King David, by D, the Deuteronomist, most probably a single author living in the age of exile - ca. 550-540 B.C.E. Deutero-Isaiah, who wrote about Cyrus, lived ca. 530 B.C.E.)

"Thus saith the Lord...that hath said of Cyrus: ‘He is My shepherd, and shall perform all My pleasure, even saying of Jerusalem, ‘She shall be built’, and to the Temple, ‘Thy foundation shall be laid’."
"Thus saith the Lord to His Anointed [Messiah] to Cyrus whose right hand I have holden to subdue nations before him....’I will go before thee and make the crooked places straight...’"
- Isaiah 44:28-45:2

"The Greek historian Herodotus claimed to know many different stories of Cyrus’s death, but pointedly, he tells the version in which the king is berated by a queen of the barbaric Scyths. Far away beyond the River Oxus, Cyrus invades the Central Asian steppes, only to be told that he is thoroughly aggressive and ‘insatiate of blood’. The Scyths then kill him in the ensuing battle and their queen fills a wine-skin with human blood, she seeks out Cyrus’s corpse and stuffs the head of the ‘Lord’s Anointed’ into the wine-skin to take the revenge which this man of war deserves."
-Robin Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version

"Later, biblical scribes redefined the term [Messiah] so that it came to mean, quite specifically, a son of the House of David, a defender of the Children of Israel who will establish a new era on earth and a new kingdom with its capital in Jerusalem."
-John Romer, Testament

"In the later Old Testament period hopes for a ‘messianic age’ arose. Sometimes these hopes focused on a divinely appointed King of David’s line - i.e., a Messiah. But in many passages, especially in Isa. 40-66, hopes for the future are expressed in general terms. There is often no explicit reference to an agent or Messiah through whom God would bring the longed-for new age of salvation."
- Graham N. Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus, The Oxford Bible Series (1989), paperback, p. 172  

(2) Ben Adam - The Son of Man

"The word of the Lord came to me: ‘Son of man, set your face toward Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him and say, Thus says the Lord God: Behold, I am against you, O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal; and I will turn you about, and put hooks into your jaws, and I will bring you forth, and all your army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed in full armor, a great company, all of them with buckler and shield, wielding swords; Persia, Cush, and Put are with them, all of them with shield and helmet; Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-togar’mah from the uttermost parts of the north with all his hordes—many peoples are with you’."
-Ezekiel 38:1-6

"The shape of the future occupies a prominent place in the prophecies of Ezekiel, who lived in Babylonia....Among his prophecies are two which subsequently became the basic building blocks of the Messianic myth. One is that of the great apocalyptic war of Gog and Magog, and the other his famous vision of the dry bones."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"And I saw, and behold, there were upon them sinews, and flesh came up, and skin stretched upon them on the top, but spirit was not in them. And He said to me: Prophesy to the spirit, prophesy Son of Man, and say to the spirit: Thus saith the Lord God: From the four winds come, O spirit, and breathe into these slain ones so that they may live! And I prophesied as He commanded me, and the spirit came into them and they live, and they stood upon their feet, an army, very, very great. And he said to me: Son of Man! These bones are all the House of Israel."
-Ezekiel 37 7-14

"In the Hebrew Bible, the phrase ‘son of Adam’ [son of Man] is used in three different senses.

1. The phrase is employed to refer to the human species as insignificant creatures in the presence of God."

"How then can a man be righteous before God? How can one born of woman be pure? If even the moon is not bright and the stars are not pure in his eyes, how much less man, who is but a maggot - a son of man, who is only a worm!"
- Job 25:4-6

2. "The phrase was also used to identify human beings as next to god in the order of creation."

"When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place, what is man that you are mindful of him, the son of man, that you care for him? You made him a little lower than the heavenly beings [or ‘than God’] and crowned him with glory and honor."
- Psalms 8:3-5

3. "The Jewish scriptures portray the human being as the agent to exercise control over every living creature (Genesis 1:28). This ideal decisively shaped Jewish visions of the end of history."
- Robert W. Funk, Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar, The Five Gospels

"God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground.’"
- Genesis 1:28

"You made him ruler over the works of your hands; you put everything under his feet: all flocks and herds, and the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, all that swim the paths of the seas."
- Psalms 8:6-8

"There are some more evidence(s) which draw us much nearer to the assumption, that the Babylonean Atrahasis, who saves and saves again humanity from disaster, the son of the god Ea and who is directly (explicitly) called ‘Ben Adam’ [i.e. Son of Man] was merged in the Jewish-Aramaic tradition of the Messiah, in the manner he was conceived according to the Messianic prophesies in the Bible."
- From the Stone Age quoted in Yehuda Dveer, Bar Kokhva, the Man and the Messiah, in the light of the Jewish Sages and the DDS, p. 62

"Ezekiel claimed, in chapter after chapter (2:1, 3:1, 4:1), that Yahweh habitually addressed him as Ben Adam. This salutation, usually translated ‘son of man’, is more accurately rendered ‘descendant of Adam’, or simply ‘human’. [Ezekiel in the original Hebrew has ‘son of man’ without a definite article - i.e., a human being.] Because the title ben Adam carried the implication that the person so styled was the second Adam it came to be viewed as a title for the messiah, once the concept of a messiah was invented in post-exilic days. Both the Book of Daniel (7:13) and the Book of Enoch (46) referred to Ben Adam in terms that persons with a messiah-belief were bound to view as messianic."
-William Harwood, Mythologies Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus

"Ever since Ezekiel, ‘Son of Man’ has been a designation signifying special nearness to God of the person so called."
Ezekiel’s "prophecy of Resurrection in contemporary with the destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem (586 B.C.E.). Ezekiel, however, had no Messianic idea in mind; the purpose of his prophecy was theological-political-psychological: he wanted to implant the belief in a speedy return to their own land into the hearts of the despairing Judean exiles in Babylonia."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

(3) The New Moses

"Just as Moses had brought the Children of Israel to the threshold of the Promised Land and then died, so the Messiah leads them to victory over Gog and Magog, culminating in the elimination of Armilus [their Satanic master], and then fades away, disappears from the scene."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"As for you, son of man, thus says the Lord God: Speak to the birds of every sort and to all beasts of the field, ‘Assemble and come, gather from all sides to the sacrificial feast which I am preparing for you, a great sacrificial feast upon the mountains of Israel, and you shall eat flesh and drink blood. You shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth—of rams, of lambs, and of goats, of bulls, all of them fatlings of Bashan. And you shall eat fat till you are filled, and drink blood till you are drunk, at the sacrificial feast which I am preparing for you. And you shall be filled at my table with horses and riders, with mighty men and all kinds of warriors,’ says the Lord God."
-Ezekiel 39:17-20

"It is God who resurrects the dead, who judges the pious and the wicked, who sits with the saintly at the great feast, who pours wine into their cups, who entertains them by dancing before them, who teaches them the new Tora, and who receives the homage of the entire rejuvenated, and sanctified world. Where is the Messiah in all this? We are told nothing of him, and were it not that in the earlier phases of the Messianic myth we were assured that he would, after the ultimate victory, reign in Jerusalem as the Prince of Peace, we would not even suspect that he is present."
"Thus, and in this primarily, the Messiah proves to be essentially a Moses figure, and Moses to be the accurate prefiguration of the Messiah. Both are Redeemers, but neither of them has a part in the great era to whose threshold they lead their people at the price of their lifeblood."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"In Christian tradition, where so much in the Old Testament is taken as a symbolic prefiguring of the events of the New, Moses is - inevitably, one might almost say - taken to prefigure Jesus, who was the superior and culminating figure."
-David Daiches, Moses - Man in the Wilderness

"For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honor than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God. And Moses verily was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; but Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end."
-Hebrews 3:3-6

"The Book of Ezekiel goes on to tell how he [Ezekiel] was commanded in another vision to take two staffs, inscribe them with the names ‘Judah’ and ‘Joseph’ and join them into one, symbolically reuniting the two kingdoms. One king will rule over them and Yahweh will save her from apostasy (sliding back into having ‘relationships’ with other gods), purify her from all uncleanness and bring her into a new covenant relationship. Under the rule of his servant David she will live in obedience and faithfulness and occupy the land of the fathers. The covenant of peace, like all the blessings and benefits of the new age, will be everlasting; but above all Yahweh will dwell in the midst of his people. The presence of his sanctuary in their midst is a pledge that the covenant has been renewed and therefore the nations will see that Yahweh has sanctified his people and has thereby set them apart."
- Christopher Knight & Robert Lomas, The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus

Another of Ezekiel’s visions was that of the reconstructed and cleansed Temple (after its destruction by the Babylonians.)

(4) Messiah ben Joseph and The Second Coming

"Behold, My Servant whom I uphold, My Elect whom My soul wanteth: I have put My spirit upon him; he shall send out justice to the nations."
-Isaiah 42:1

"About half a century after Ezekiel, there lived in Babylonia the anonymous prophet of consolation and Israel’s national restoration, usually referred to a Deutero-Isaiah. This great poet-prophet spoke repeatedly about the ‘Servant of the Lord’, describing the call, mission, sufferings, death and resurrection of this mysterious individual."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"He was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and familiar with suffering. Like one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows, yet we considered him stricken by God, smitten by him, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed. We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all. "
-Isaiah 53:3-6

"As to the identification of the ‘Servant’, there is no scholarly consensus to this day. However, the Aggada, the Talmudic legend, unhesitatingly identifies him with the Messiah, and understands especially the descriptions of his sufferings as referring to Messiah ben Joseph."
"Messiah ben Joseph, also called Messiah ben Ephraim, referring to his ancestor Ephraim, the son of Joseph, is imagined as the first commander of the army of Israel in the Messianic wars. He will achieve many signal victories, but his fate is to die at the hands of Armilus in a great battle in which Israel is defeated by Gog and Magog. His corpse is left unburied in the streets of Jerusalem for forty days, but neither beast nor bird of prey dares to touch it. Then Messiah ben David comes, and his first act is to bring about the resurrection of his tragic forerunner."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"Who is this mysterious suffering and/or dying Messiah? What is the origin of the concept? This question has troubled scholars for decades. Apparently, speculation concerning Zech 12.10 -- ‘they will look on him/me whom they have pierced’—had something to do with it, as the Targum to that passage indicates; also reference to the sufferings endured by the patriach Joseph surely lies in the background of the designation Messiah ben Joseph. May we also suggest that the connection between this Messiah figure and the apocalyptic warfare against Amalek [enemies of the Israelites during the Exodus] is not coincidental, but is partially a product of Jewish midrash on the Amalek episode in which ihsouV [Joshua, Moses’ successor], from the tribe of Ephraim, both fought the foe and was told to remember that in a future battle, God would finish the job there begun."
- Robert A. Kraft, Was there a ‘Messiah-Joshua Tradition at the Turn of the Era?

"Wondrously show thy steadfast love, O savior of those who seek refuge from their adversaries at thy right hand. Keep me as the apple of the eye; hide me in the shadow of thy wings, from the wicked who despoil me, my deadly enemies who surround me. They close their hearts to pity; with their mouths they speak arrogantly. They track me down; now they surround me; they set their eyes to cast me to the ground. They are like a lion eager to tear, as a young lion lurking in ambush. Arise, O Lord! confront them, overthrow them! Deliver my life from the wicked by thy sword, from men by thy hand, O Lord, from men whose portion in life is of the world."
- Psalms 17:7-14

"The tremendous cruelties of the age [of exile] were rejected in visions of a Second Coming leading to a new Heaven and new Earth. This vision, that had first been seen and recorded by prophets in Babylon, was now celebrated in the Book of Psalms, that wonderful collection of hymns ancient and modern designed for use in the new Temple that Zerubbabel built in Jerusalem [between 520 and 515 B.C.E.]. All illness, all wickedness will be banished from the earth, they tell us; Jehovah’s Law will be written not on papyrus not on scrolls of vellum but on men’s hearts, so that they will grow in understanding of their God. It was a dream of paradise , a paradise prepared for the nation that kept Jehovah’s Law."
- John Romer, Testament

"Once you spoke in a vision, to your faithful people you said: ‘I have bestowed strength on a warrior; I have exalted a young man from among the people.’"
- Psalms 89:19

"I’m struck by Ps 89:19: ‘then you spoke in a VISION to your faithful one ....’ there follows what looks like a description, not of a ‘vision’ as we normally think of it, but a straightforward description of a cultic ceremony on royal enthronement with complex mythological interpretation which is transparently public. In this instance the ‘vision’ is, as are all visions in the Jewish apocalyptic worldview, a revelation of reality as it truly is, beyond the barely empirical, for those who are in the know, who are part of God’s people - those ‘walk in the light of his countenance’ v. 17."
- Crispin Fletcher-Louis (Divine Mediators)

"The Lord swore to David a sure oath from which he will not turn back: ‘One of the sons of your body I will set on your throne. If your sons keep my covenant and my testimonies which I shall teach them, their sons also for ever shall sit upon your throne.’ For the Lord has chosen Zion; he has desired it for his habitation: ‘This is my resting place for ever; here I will dwell, for I have desired it. I will abundantly bless her provisions; I will satisfy her poor with bread. Her priests I will clothe with salvation, and her saints will shout for joy. There I will make a horn to sprout for David; I have prepared a lamp for my anointed. His enemies I will clothe with shame, but upon himself his crown will shed its luster’."
- Psalms 132:11-18

"...The Apocalypse of Ezra (4 Ezra = 2 Esdras), which seems to have been compiled around the end of the first Christian century by a Jew who was somewhat disillusioned by the harshness with which the Lord had allowed Israel to be treated in the recent past—especially the Fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE. The book probably was written in Semitic, and early translated into Greek, and from Greek into a variety of languages. The Semitic original has perished, along with the Greek translation (except for a few lines from 15.57-59, which in any event originally was not part of 4 Ezra...), so that present editions rest primarily on the ancient Latin version. In its present Latin form, 4 Ezra contains what is usually called a Christian framework (chs 1-2 = ‘5 Ezra’ and 15-16 = "6 Ezra") between which the Apocalypse proper is sandwiched."
- Robert A. Kraft, Was there a ‘Messiah-Joshua Tradition at the Turn of the Era?

...The author of 4 Ezra [c. 350 B.C.E.] unmistakably refers to the Messiah...when he puts words in the mouth of God to the effect that after four hundred years (counted from when?) My son the Messiah shall die."
-Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts

"And whosoever is delivered from the predicted evil shall see My wonders. For My son, the Messiah, shall be revealed, together with those who are with him, and shall gladden the survivors four hundred years. And it shall be, after those years, that My son, the Messiah, shall die, and all in whom there is human breath. Then shall the world be turned into the primeval silence seven days, as it was at the first beginnings..."
- 4 Ezra 7:27-30

"Jews still hope for the coming of the Messiah, who will hand out eternal judgment and reward to all. This hope is largely communal; the entire Jewish race and the whole of creation is in view more than individual men.
"In the end the moral life of man here on earth is considered the most proper concern of man; final judgments are best left to God."
- "The Spirit of Truth and the Spirit of Error 2.", compiled by Steven Cory (Moody Bible Institute of Chicago)

"How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of him who brings the news, announcing peace, bringing good news, announcing salvation, saying to Zion, ‘Your God reigns as king!’"
- Isaiah 52:7


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